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R-M269 – R1b1a1a2 | R1b-L21 R1b1a2a1a2c1

R-M269R1b1a1b – Age: About 13,300 years ago – Origin: Eurasia
The age of the mutation M269 is estimated at roughly 4,000 to 10,000 years ago, and its sub-clades can be used to trace the Neolithic expansion into Europe as well as founder-effects within European populations due to later (Bronze Age and Iron Age) migrations.

M269/PF6517 Subclades of R-M269 (R1b1a1a2; previously R1b1a2) are now extremely common throughout Western Europe, but are also found at lower levels in many other parts of Western Eurasia and the Mediterranean.

R1b-L21 or R1b-M529 or R1b-S145 – R1b1a2a1a2c – R1b1a2a1a2c1
Three Early Bronze Age men (2026–1534 cal BC) from burials on Rathlin Island off the north coast of Ireland were all R1b1a2a1a2c, or R1b-L21.
Ancestor: R1b (R-M343); * R-M269; ** R-L151; …
Possible time of origin: 4,500 years
Descendants: R-A7905; R-A5846; R-DF63; R-…
Highest frequencies: Irish; Scottish; Welsh;
R-DF13, which originated approximately 4,200 years ago, is a primary subclade of R-L21. It is likely associated with the Bell Beaker culture and, possibly, the Celts.
R-DF13, which is also known as R-S521, R-Z2542 and R-CTS8221, as well as the phylogenetic name R1b1a2a1a2c1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, which is characteristic of a majority of the living male inhabitants of Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Brittany.

Haplogroup R1b-L21

R1b-L21 or R1b-M529 or R1b-S145 (R1b1a2a1a2c) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, characteristic of the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland.[1]


R1b-L21 is likely a haplogroup belonging to the Insular Celts (among others), who migrated to Western Europe during the Bronze Age, populating vast regions of what is now IrelandGreat Britain, Northern Spain and northern France.[citation needed] The marker is also found to a lesser extent in the remainder of France, western Switzerland, the Low Countries, northwestern GermanyDenmark, and the northwestern Iberian peninsula.[citation needed]

Currently this haplogroup is mostly found among the inhabitants of Ireland and Great Britain, but is also found in Brittany, northern France, modern Northern PortugalGalicia and Asturias in the northwest of Spain,[citation needed] and has some presence in Belgium[citation needed] and the Netherlands[2]

Three Early Bronze Age men (2026–1534 cal BC) from burials on Rathlin Island off the north coast of Ireland were all R1b1a2a1a2c, or R1b-L21. Rathlin2 was further defined as R1b1a2a1a2c1, or R1b-DF13/S521/CTS241. Rathlin1 was further defined as R1b1a2a1a2c1g, or R1b-DF21/S192.[3]

Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

The Iceni, their land, their people – Iron Age Britain

The Hinxton Rings Iron Age cemetery is unusual. It doesn’t really follow funerary conventions in Eastern England, so it is possible, that it’s DNA isn’t completely representative of all Iron Age populations in SE England. It’s an unusual site. Delineated inhumations from the 1st century BC, surrounded by an large ring ditch. The Iron Age samples from Hinxton (including one from nearby Linton) consisted of four females, and two males. Male 1. Y-DNA was was R1b1a2a1a2c1 with CTS241/DF13/S521+ according to Jean Manco’s excellent Ancient DNA reference web pages, while Male 2 was R1b1a2a1a2c with L21/M529/S145+, S461/Z290+. That’s all that we have for Iron Age Y-DNA in England.




The Iceni or Eceni were a Brittonic tribe of eastern Britain during the Iron Age and early Roman era. Their territory included present-day Norfolk and parts of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, and bordered the area of the Corieltauvi to the west, and the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes to the south. 


  1. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades – 2018, International Society of Genetic Genealogy
  2. ^ Altena, Eveline; Smeding, Risha; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Decorte, Ronny; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; de Knijff, Peter (2019). “The Dutch Y-chromosomal landscape”European Journal of Human Genetics28 (3): 287–299. doi:10.1038/s41431-019-0496-0ISSN 1018-4813PMC 7029002PMID 31488894.
  3. ^ Cassidy, Lara M.; Martiniano, Rui; Murphy, Eileen M.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; Mallory, James; Hartwell, Barrie; Bradley, Daniel G. (2016). “Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences113 (2): 368–373. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..368Cdoi:10.1073/pnas.1518445113ISSN 0027-8424PMC 4720318PMID 26712024.


R-L513/S215/DF1. Defining mutations, DF13, CTS241, S521, Z2542, CTS8221. Highest frequencies, Irish · Scottish · Welsh · Bretons.
L513 is a very stable mutation of the Y chromosome that gets passed down father to son through the generations. It probably occurred first in a man about 3500 years ago, our founding father.



R-S5982A5 * FGC21247/BY208 * S7123+12 SNPsformed 3100 ybp, TMRCA 1950 ybpinfo
id:YF80536SCT [SC-EDI]inew

Age: About 4,200 years ago
Origin: Eurasia



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